|編集委員会から/Editorial news||将来の材料科学研究をリードする若手に焦点をあてた企画 - Nanoarchitectonics||2015.03.02|
In the last 30 days
Wei Wu et al 2015 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16 023501
This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.
Hideo Hosono et al 2015 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16 033503
This review shows the highlights of a 4-year-long research project supported by the Japanese Government to explore new superconducting materials and relevant functional materials. The project found several tens of new superconductors by examining ∼1000 materials, each of which was chosen by Japanese experts with a background in solid state chemistry. This review summarizes the major achievements of the project in newly found superconducting materials, and the fabrication wires and tapes of iron-based superconductors; it incorporates a list of ∼700 unsuccessful materials examined for superconductivity in the project. In addition, described are new functional materials and functionalities discovered during the project.
Sunandan Baruah and Joydeep Dutta 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10 013001
One-dimensional nanostructures exhibit interesting electronic and optical properties due to their low dimensionality leading to quantum confinement effects. ZnO has received lot of attention as a nanostructured material because of unique properties rendering it suitable for various applications. Amongst the different methods of synthesis of ZnO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is attractive for its simplicity and environment friendly conditions. This review summarizes the conditions leading to the growth of different ZnO nanostructures using hydrothermal technique. Doping of ZnO nanostructures through hydrothermal method are also highlighted.
Seyed Farid Seyed Shirazi et al 2015 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16 033502
Since most starting materials for tissue engineering are in powder form, using powder-based additive manufacturing methods is attractive and practical. The principal point of employing additive manufacturing (AM) systems is to fabricate parts with arbitrary geometrical complexity with relatively minimal tooling cost and time. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and inkjet 3D printing (3DP) are two powerful and versatile AM techniques which are applicable to powder-based material systems. Hence, the latest state of knowledge available on the use of AM powder-based techniques in tissue engineering and their effect on mechanical and biological properties of fabricated tissues and scaffolds must be updated. Determining the effective setup of parameters, developing improved biocompatible/bioactive materials, and improving the mechanical/biological properties of laser sintered and 3D printed tissues are the three main concerns which have been investigated in this article.
Katsuhiko Ariga et al 2008 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 9 014109
The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. However, existing fabrication techniques suffer from several disadvantages including size-restrictions and a general paucity of applicable materials. Because of this, the development of alternative approaches based on supramolecular self-assembly processes is anticipated as a breakthrough methodology. This review article aims to comprehensively summarize the salient aspects of self-assembly through the introduction of the recent challenges and breakthroughs in three categories: (i) types of self-assembly in bulk media; (ii) types of components for self-assembly in bulk media; and (iii) self-assembly at interfaces.
Jin Cui et al 2015 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16 036004
The efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been improved from 9.7 to 19.3%, with the highest value of 20.1% achieved in 2014. Such a high photovoltaic performance can be attributed to optically high absorption characteristics and balanced charge transport properties with long diffusion lengths of the hybrid lead halide perovskite materials. In this review, some fundamental details of hybrid lead iodide perovskite materials, various fabrication techniques and device structures are described, aiming for a better understanding of these materials and thus highly efficient PSC devices. In addition, some advantages and open issues are discussed here to outline the prospects and challenges of using perovskites in commercial photovoltaic devices.
Toshio Kamiya et al 2010 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 11 044305
The present status and recent research results on amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) and their thin-film transistors (TFTs) are reviewed. AOSs represented by amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O (a-IGZO) are expected to be the channel material of TFTs in next-generation flat-panel displays because a-IGZO TFTs satisfy almost all the requirements for organic light-emitting-diode displays, large and fast liquid crystal and three-dimensional (3D) displays, which cannot be satisfied using conventional silicon and organic TFTs. The major insights of this review are summarized as follows. (i) Most device issues, such as uniformity, long-term stability against bias stress and TFT performance, are solved for a-IGZO TFTs. (ii) A sixth-generation (6G) process is demonstrated for 32'' and 37'' displays. (iii) An 8G sputtering apparatus and a sputtering target have been developed. (iv) The important effect of deep subgap states on illumination instability is revealed. (v) Illumination instability under negative bias has been intensively studied, and some mechanisms are proposed. (vi) Degradation mechanisms are classified into back-channel effects, the creation of traps at an interface and in the gate insulator, and the creation of donor states in annealed a-IGZO TFTs by the Joule heating; the creation of bulk defects should also be considered in the case of unannealed a-IGZO TFTs. (vii) Dense passivation layers improve the stability and photoresponse and are necessary for practical applications. (viii) Sufficient knowledge of electronic structures and electron transport in a-IGZO has been accumulated to construct device simulation models.
Yujia Sun and Hong-Cai Zhou 2015 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16 054202
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable attention for various applications due to their tunable structure, porosity and functionality. In general, MOFs have been synthesized from isolated metal ions and organic linkers under hydrothermal or solvothermal conditions via one-spot reactions. The emerging precursor approach and kinetically tuned dimensional augmentation strategy add more diversity to this field. In addition, to speed up the crystallization process and create uniform crystals with reduced size, many alternative synthesis routes have been explored. Recent advances in microwave-assisted synthesis and electrochemical synthesis are presented in this review. In recent years, post-synthetic approaches have been shown to be powerful tools to synthesize MOFs with modified functionality, which cannot be attained via de novo synthesis. In this review, some current accomplishments of post-synthetic modification (PSM) based on covalent transformations and coordinative interactions as well as post-synthetic exchange (PSE) in robust MOFs are provided.
Tsuyoshi Takata et al 2015 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16 033506
Photocatalytic water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen is a method to directly convert light energy into storable chemical energy, and has received considerable attention for use in large-scale solar energy utilization. Particulate semiconductors are generally used as photocatalysts, and semiconductor properties such as bandgap, band positions, and photocarrier mobility can heavily impact photocatalytic performance. The design of active photocatalysts has been performed with the consideration of such semiconductor properties. Photocatalysts have a catalytic aspect in addition to a semiconductor one. The ability to control surface redox reactions in order to efficiently produce targeted reactants is also important for photocatalysts. Over the past few decades, various photocatalysts for water splitting have been developed, and a recent main concern has been the development of visible-light sensitive photocatalysts for water splitting. This review introduces the study of water-splitting photocatalysts, with a focus on recent progress in visible-light induced overall water splitting on oxynitride photocatalysts. Various strategies for designing efficient photocatalysts for water splitting are also discussed herein.
Nagarajan Padmavathy and Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan 2008 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 9 035004
In this study, we investigate the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles with various particle sizes. ZnO was prepared by the base hydrolysis of zinc acetate in a 2-propanol medium and also by a precipitation method using Zn(NO 3) 2 and NaOH. The products were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Bacteriological tests such as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and disk diffusion were performed in Luria-Bertani and nutrient agar media on solid agar plates and in liquid broth systems using different concentrations of ZnO by a standard microbial method for the first time. Our bacteriological study showed the enhanced biocidal activity of ZnO nanoparticles compared with bulk ZnO in repeated experiments. This demonstrated that the bactericidal efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles increases with decreasing particle size. It is proposed that both the abrasiveness and the surface oxygen species of ZnO nanoparticles promote the biocidal properties of ZnO nanoparticles.