|編集委員会から/Editorial news||将来の材料科学研究をリードする若手に焦点をあてた企画 - Nanoarchitectonics||2015.03.02|
|INVITED REVIEW||日本の超伝導の新物質探索のエキスパート 4年間にわたる約１０００の物質探索結果を初公開||2015.05.14|
In the last 30 days
Hideo Hosono et al 2015 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16 033503
This review shows the highlights of a 4-year-long research project supported by the Japanese Government to explore new superconducting materials and relevant functional materials. The project found several tens of new superconductors by examining ∼1000 materials, each of which was chosen by Japanese experts with a background in solid state chemistry. This review summarizes the major achievements of the project in newly found superconducting materials, and the fabrication wires and tapes of iron-based superconductors; it incorporates a list of ∼700 unsuccessful materials examined for superconductivity in the project. In addition, described are new functional materials and functionalities discovered during the project.
Bertrand Faure et al 2013 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 14 023001
This review describes recent efforts on the synthesis, dispersion and surface functionalization of the three dominating oxide nanoparticles used for photocatalytic, UV-blocking and sunscreen applications: titania, zinc oxide, and ceria. The gas phase and liquid phase synthesis is described briefly and examples are given of how weakly aggregated photocatalytic or UV-absorbing oxide nanoparticles with different composition, morphology and size can be generated. The principles of deagglomeration are reviewed and the specific challenges for nanoparticles highlighted. The stabilization of oxide nanoparticles in both aqueous and non-aqueous media requires a good understanding of the magnitude of the interparticle forces and the surface chemistry of the materials. Quantitative estimates of the Hamaker constants in various media and measurements of the isoelectric points for the different oxide nanoparticles are presented together with an overview of different additives used to prepare stable dispersions. The structural and chemical requirements and the various routes to produce transparent photocatalytic and nanoparticle-based UV-protecting coatings, and UV-blocking sunscreens are described and discussed.
Sunandan Baruah and Joydeep Dutta 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10 013001
One-dimensional nanostructures exhibit interesting electronic and optical properties due to their low dimensionality leading to quantum confinement effects. ZnO has received lot of attention as a nanostructured material because of unique properties rendering it suitable for various applications. Amongst the different methods of synthesis of ZnO nanostructures, the hydrothermal method is attractive for its simplicity and environment friendly conditions. This review summarizes the conditions leading to the growth of different ZnO nanostructures using hydrothermal technique. Doping of ZnO nanostructures through hydrothermal method are also highlighted.
Puangrat Kajitvichyanukul et al 2005 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 6 352
In this paper, a sol–gel technique with dip coating method is used to prepare photocatalytic TiO 2 thin films immobilized on glass plates. The structure and morphology of thin films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The structural characterization of this film shows that the titanium oxide anatase phase is predominant at 400–700 °C. The appearance of the rutile phase depends mainly on the number of coating cycles. For example, the rutile phase appeared at 600 °C with 5 coating cycles, however, it disappeared from TiO 2 crystalline after 8 coating cycles. The obtained thin films from each preparation condition were employed in experiment of photoreduction of chromium. The results show that the Chromium(VI) is successfully removed from aqueous in photocatalysis system using the obtained thin film with high portions of anatase phase. The photoactivity of the prepared TiO 2 thin films exhibits a comparable efficiency with TiO 2 powder, Degussa P-25.
Koshi Takenaka 2012 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 13 013001
Most materials expand upon heating. However, although rare, some materials contract upon heating. Such negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials have enormous industrial merit because they can control the thermal expansion of materials. Recent progress in materials research enables us to obtain materials exhibiting negative coefficients of linear thermal expansion over −30 ppm K −1. Such giant NTE is opening a new phase of control of thermal expansion in composites. Specifically examining practical aspects, this review briefly summarizes materials and mechanisms of NTE as well as composites containing NTE materials, based mainly on activities of the last decade.
Wei Wu et al 2015 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16 023501
This review focuses on the recent development and various strategies in the preparation, microstructure, and magnetic properties of bare and surface functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs); their corresponding biological application was also discussed. In order to implement the practical in vivo or in vitro applications, the IONPs must have combined properties of high magnetic saturation, stability, biocompatibility, and interactive functions at the surface. Moreover, the surface of IONPs could be modified by organic materials or inorganic materials, such as polymers, biomolecules, silica, metals, etc. The new functionalized strategies, problems and major challenges, along with the current directions for the synthesis, surface functionalization and bioapplication of IONPs, are considered. Finally, some future trends and the prospects in these research areas are also discussed.
Hee Ay Ching et al 2014 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 15 014402
Coatings such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium nitride (TiN) are employed in joint implants due to their excellent tribological properties. Recently, graphite-like carbon (GLC) and tantalum (Ta) have been proven to have good potential as coating as they possess mechanical properties similar to bones—high hardness and high flexibility. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to summarize the coating techniques of these four materials in order to compare their mechanical properties and tribological outcomes. Eighteen studies published between January 2000 and February 2013 have met the inclusion criteria for this review. Details of their fabrication parameters, material and mechanical properties along with the tribological outcomes, such as friction and wear rate, were identified and are presented in a systematic way. Although experiment conditions varied, we conclude that Ta has the lowest wear rate compared to DLC, GLC and TiN because it has a lower wear rate with high contact pressure as well as higher hardness to elasticity ratio. However, a further tribology test is needed in an environment which replicates artificial joints to confirm the acceptability of these findings.
Hansoo Kim et al 2013 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 14 014205
Adding a large amount of light elements such as aluminum to steels is not a new concept recalling that several Fe–Al–Mn–C alloys were patented in 1950s for replacement of nickel or chromium in corrosion resistance steels. However, the so-called lightweight steels or low-density steels were revisited recently, which is driven by demands from the industry where steel has served as a major structural material. Strengthening without loss of ductility has been a triumph in steel research, but lowering the density of steel by mixing with light elements will be another prospect that may support the competitiveness against emerging alternatives such as magnesium alloys. In this paper, we review recent studies on lightweight steels, emphasizing the concept of alloy design for microstructures and mechanical properties. The influence of alloying elements on the phase constituents, mechanical properties and the change of density is critically reviewed. Deformation mechanisms of various lightweight steels are discussed as well. This paper provides a reason why the success of lightweight steels is strongly dependent on scientific achievements even though alloy development is closely related to industrial applications. Finally, we summarize some of the main directions for future investigations necessary for vitalizing this field of interest.
P.K Panda et al 2002 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 3 327
A test equipment was designed to study thermal shock and thermal fatigue of ceramic materials subjected to fast heating (ascending). The equipment was designed to generate thermal stress in a test specimen by heating one surface of it by an oxy-hydrogen flame while cooling the opposite surface. The sample cracked when thermal stress exceeded its mechanical strength. The in situ crack formation was detected by an acoustic emission system coupled to the set up. The hot zone temperature was measured by an infra red pyrometer. The equipment was also designed to run thermal fatigue test cycles in automatic mode between two selected temperatures. The temperature and thermal stress distribution in the test specimen were modelled using finite element software. The effect of temperature distribution of the top and bottom surfaces on thermal stresses was studied. It was observed that the thermal stress is very sensitive to the temperature distribution on the top surface and maximum near the periphery of the top surface. This was in agreement with the experimental results in which the cracks were originated from the periphery of top surface. It was also observed that the failure temperature was higher for thicker samples.
Yufei Zhao et al 2013 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 14 043501
Scientists increasingly witness the applications of MoS 2 and MoO 2 in the field of energy conversion and energy storage. On the one hand, MoS 2 and MoO 2 have been widely utilized as promising catalysts for electrocatalytic or photocatalytic hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution. On the other hand, MoS 2 and MoO 2 have also been verified as efficient electrode material for lithium ion batteries. In this review, the synthesis, structure and properties of MoS 2 and MoO 2 are briefly summarized according to their applications for H 2 generation and lithium ion batteries. Firstly, we overview the recent advancements in the morphology control of MoS 2 and MoO 2 and their applications as electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reactions. Secondly, we focus on the photo-induced water splitting for H 2 generation, in which MoS 2 acts as an important co-catalyst when combined with other semiconductor catalysts. The newly reported research results of the significant functions of MoS 2 nanocomposites in photo-induced water splitting are presented. Thirdly, we introduce the advantages of MoS 2 and MoO 2 for their enhanced cyclic performance and high capacity as electrode materials of lithium ion batteries. Recent key achievements in MoS 2- and MoO 2-based lithium ion batteries are highlighted. Finally, we discuss the future scope and the important challenges emerging from these fascinating materials.